180 Question References

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Introduction: Rules and Guidelines[edit]

This website provides references for the infamous "180 Questions" for the MIT Astrophysics Part III exam. Its purpose is to facilitate the studying process, and hopefully (at least somewhat) decrease the stress associated with the Part III exam.

This page is very much a work in progress- anybody who finds a good reference for any of these questions should feel free to add it to the list. There is no limit to the number of references that may be added for any given question, but please obey the following guidelines when submitting references:

  1. Add your reference to the reference list at the beginning of this document and assign it a short and unique reference code by which it will be referred to within the main body of the document. Please do this even if you think that the referenced book or source will only be used by one question. Please try to cite these sources as well as possible. (A little MLA Citation Style wouldn't kill you).
  2. Include the edition number as part of the reference name. (ie, CO1 and CO2 refer to Carroll and Ostlie's An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics, editions 1 and 2, respectively.) Different editions can have surprisingly different layouts and information.
  3. Localize the key passages as well as possible. For example, if the question deals with planet formation, cite "CO2, pgs. 857-869" or "CO2, Section 23.2". Simply stating "CO2" is really not very helpful.
  4. For each of the 180 questions, try to list the references in order of decreasing importance, so that the first references are the best. We don't want the gems buried under an avalanche of pebbles and stones.
  5. This isn't so much a rule, but feel free to divide the questions into multiple parts. Some of these 180 questions have multiple parts to them, and the best references may be different for the different parts. (This is especially important for the lore questions.)
  6. When possible, cite references that are easily accessible to all people at all times, present AND future. For example, while a private communication with person A might have provided the best information on Question X, person A will most likely graduate within a year or two. So please don't reference these private communications. Class notes are a little different, since they could theoretically be passed down from one class to the next IF AN ELECTRONIC VERSION EXISTS, but please try to avoid this as well. As a rule of thumb, let's allow class notes that have electronic versions which will probably be available for quite some time and ban class notes that are either taken by hand or refer to electronic notes that are not likely to be accessible in the near future.
  7. Incorrect references should also be cited. For example, the section entitled "The Chandrasekhar Limit for Neutron Stars" on page 583 of CO2 is incorrect, and has caused problems for previous test takers that have used it as a reference. Therefore, question 60 has the note: INCORRECT: CO2, pg. 583, "The Chandrasekhar Limit for Neutron Stars."
  8. In order to help separate the different references for each question, enclose each reference in curly brackets {}.

That basically covers it. The more that people contribute to this list, the more useful that it becomes, so please add as much information as possible.

Reference List (alphabetical by reference code name):[edit]

  • ADS09 The Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System. 2009. (available online at:<http://adsabs.harvard.edu/>.)
  • B1 Bradt, Hale. "Astrophysics Processes: The Physics of Astronomical Phenomena." United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • BG1 Burke, B. and F. Graham-Smith. "An Introduction to Radio Astronomy." United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • BT3 Binney, James and Scott Tremaine. "Galactic Dynamics." Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.
  • BV Kirshner, Robert P., Augustus Oemler Jr., Paul L. Schechter, and Stephen A. Shectman, "A survey of the Bootes void." Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 314, (1987), 493-506. (2/26/2009: available online at <http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987ApJ...314..493K>).
  • C1 Carroll, Sean M. "An Introduction to General Relativity Spacetime and Geometry." San Francisco: Pearson Addison-Wesley, 2004.
  • CO2 Carroll, Bradley and Dale A. Ostlie. "An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics." 2nd ed. San Francisco: Pearson Addison-Wesley, 2007.
  • DGE3 Griffiths, D. "Introduction to Electrodynamics." 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999.
  • EB09 Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. (available at <http://www.britannica.com/>).
  • GF1 Longair, Malcolm S. "Galaxy Formation." Berlin: Springer, 1998.
  • H1 Hartle, James B. "Gravity: An Introduction to Einstein's General Relativity." San Francisco: Pearson Addison-Wesley, 2003.
  • Hm4 Harwit, Martin, "Astrophysical Concepts" 4th ed. New York: Springer Science, 2006.
  • HKT2 Hansen, Carl J., Steven D. Kawaler, and Virginia Trimble. "Stellar Interiors: Physical Principles, Structure, and Evolution." 2nd ed. USA: Springer, 2004.
  • ITU2009 NASA's Imagine the Universe (online). (available online at: <http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.html>.).
  • JJ3 Jackson, J.D. "Classical Electrodynamics." 3rd ed. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
  • JP8 Peacock, J. "Cosmological Physics." 8th ed. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • JPL09 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Site (online). <http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/>. Accessed 3/10/2009.
  • LIGO09 LIGO Scientific Collaboration Home Page (online). <http://www.ligo.org/>. Accessed 3/10/09.
  • MHB62 Muhleman, D.O., D.B. Holdridge, and N. Block. "The Astronomical Unit Determined by Radar Reflections from Venus." The Astronomical Journal. Vol 67, 4, (1962) 191-203. (available online: <http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1962AJ.....67..191M>.)
  • MLP Miller, M. Coleman, Frederick K. Lamb and Dimitrios Psaltis. "Constraints on the Equation of State of Neutron Star Matter From Observations of Kilohertz QPOs." Nucl.Phys.Proc.Suppl. 69 (1998) 123-128. (available on the arxiv: <http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9801140>).
  • MT4 Marion, J. and S. Thornton. "Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems." 4th ed. USA: Thomson Brooks-Cole, 1995.
  • NASA09 NASA Home Page (online). <http://www.nasa.gov/home/index.html>. Accessed 3/10/2009.
  • NB Narayan, R. and M. Bartelmann. "Lectures on Gravitational Lensing," 13th Jerusalem Winter School in Theoretical Physics. (available on the arxiv: <http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9606001>).
  • NHEA09 NASA's High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (online). <http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/>. Accessed 3/10/09.
  • P09 Planck Science Team Home Page (online). <http://www.rssd.esa.int/index.php?project=PLANCK&page=index>. Accessed 3/10/09.
  • PSB2 Perley, R. (ed), F. Schwab (ed) and A. Bridle (ed). "Synthesis Imaging in Radio Astronomy." 2nd ed. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1991.
  • RuSt Staubert, Rudiger., "Magnetic Fields of accreting X-ray pulsars." Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. Vol. 3 (2003), Suppl., 270–280. (2/24/2009: available online at: <http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ChJAS...3..270S> ).
  • SDV Seager, S., D. Deming, and J.A. Valenti, "Transiting Exoplanets with JWST." astro-ph:0808.1913v1 (available online at: <http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/0808.1913>).
  • S09 Spitzer Space Telescope Home (online). <http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/spitzer/index.shtml>. Accessed 3/10/2009.
  • ST1 Shapiro, Stuart L., and Saul A. Teukolsky. "Black Holes, White Dwarfs, and Neutron Stars: The Physics of Compact Objects." Germany: WILEY-VCH, 2004.
  • TH1 Joachim E. Trümper, Joachim E., and Günther Hasinger. "The Universe in X-Rays." Berlin: Springer, 2008. (2/25/2009: available online at: <http://www.springerlink.com/content/r21314/?p=00fff39912c04b56863efc0d5871a2bb&pi=0>).
  • TP1 Padmanabhan, Thanu. "An Invitation to Astrophysics." New Jersey: World Scientific Publishing Co, 2006.
  • W2008 Weekes, T. "TeV Gamma-ray Astronomy: The Story So Far." arXiv:0811.1197v1 (available online: <http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.1197>).

180 Questions' References List[edit]


1. Size of Earth: {EB09, article "Eratosthenes of Cyrene", <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/191064/Eratosthenes-of-Cyrene>.}. Distance to Moon: {EB09, article "Cosmos", section "History of humanity’s perception of the universe » Astronomical theories of the ancient Greeks", <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/139365/Cosmos>.}.

2. {CO2, section "Retrograde Motion Revisted" (pgs 6-8).}. http://astro.unl.edu/naap/ssm/ssm_advanced.html

3. Henry Draper Catalogue: {CO2, section called "The Spectral Types of Stars", pgs 202-204.}. Bayer Designation: {EB09, article "Johann Bayer", <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/56781/Johann-Bayer>}. Markarian Catalogue: {ADS09, section called "Catalogue of Markarian Galaxies (Markarian+ 1967-81)", <http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994yCat.7061....0M>}. Pulsars {CO2, Section 16.7 Pulsars, esp pgs 587-588.}. Abell Catalogue: {GF1, Section 4.1: The Large Scale Distribution of Clusters of Galaxies, pgs 71-75.}. Third Cambridge Catalogue: {ADS09, <http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs?bibcode=2002yCat.8001....0E&>}. New General Catalogue: {CO2, section called "Cataloging the Island Universes", pgs 940-941.}. Bonner Durchmusterung: {EB09, article "Bonner Durchmusterung", <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/73160/Bonner-Durchmusterung>}. Quasars: {CO2, sections called "Quasi-Stellar Objects" and "Quasar Terminology", pg 1099.}. Westerhout Catalogue: {ADS09, section called "Westerhout's Catalogue of 82 Discrete Sources (Westerhout 1958)", <http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000yCat.8064....0W>}. Messier Catalogue: {CO2, section called "Cataloging the Island Universes", pgs 940-941.}, {Full list provided in CO2, Appendix H: The Messier Catalogue, A-13}. Asteroids: {EB09, article "infrared astronomy", <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/287941/infrared-astronomy#ref=ref283726>}.

4. The Crab:{CO2, Figure 15.4 (pg 525); sporadically on pgs 590-595.}. 3C 273:{CO2, sections called "The Discovery of Quasars", "Quasar Luminosities", and "Quasar Spectra", pgs 1095-1098}. Cyg A:{CO2, sections called "Radio Galaxies" and "Radio Lobes and Jets", pgs 1090-1095.}. M87:{EB09, article "Virgo A", <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/630116/Virgo-A>.}. SS 433:{CO2, section called "SS 433", pgs 699-700.}. LMC:{EB09, article "Magellanic Cloud", <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/356551/Magellanic-Cloud#ref=ref225757>.}. Cyg X-1:{CO2, section called "Low-Mass and Massive X-Ray Binaries", pgs 697-698.}. Orion:{EB09, article "Orion", <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/432659/Orion>.},{EB09, article "Orion Nebula", <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/432669/Orion-Nebula>}. M31:{CO2, section called "The Local Group", pgs 1059-1061.}. Bootes Void:{BV, pg 493 should suffice.}. Virgo:{CO2, section called "The Virgo Cluster: A Rich, Irregular Cluster", pgs 1062-1064.}. h and Chi Persei:{CO2, Figure 13.18, pg 477.}.

5. Sun:{}. Orion Nebula:{}. M13:{}. M31:{}. Virgo cluster:{EB09, article "Virgo cluster", <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/630120/Virgo-cluster>.}. Coma cluster:{EB09, article "Coma cluster", <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/127220/Coma-cluster>.}. 3C 273:{EB09, article "quasar", <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/486494/quasar#ref=ref163511>.}.



8. {CO2, section called "Seeing" (pgs 148-150).}. Note: "Seeing" is not the same as the transparency of the atmosphere, but that can be studied here: {CO2, section called "Atmospheric Windows in the Electromagnetic Spectrum" (pgs 167-168).}.


10. Many of these satellites are touched upon in {CO2, section called "Observing Above the Atmosphere" (pgs 168-170).}. Other information: Voyager: {JPL09, esp <http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/science/index.html> and <http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/instruments.html>.}. Einstein: {NHEA09, esp <http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/einstein/heao2.html>.} . IRAS: {JPL09, esp <http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/missiondetails.cfm?mission=IRAS>}. HST: {NASA09, esp <http://hubble.nasa.gov/overview/intro.php>.}. COBE: {NASA09, esp <http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/cobe/>.}. Compton-GRO: {NHEA09, esp <http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/cgro/cgro.html>}. Rossi XTE: {NHEA09, esp <http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/xte/rxte.html>.}. AXAF (Chandra): {NHEA09, esp <http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/chandra/chandra.html>.}. WMAP: {NASA09, esp <http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/mission/>.}. Planck: {P09, esp <http://www.rssd.esa.int/index.php?project=PLANCK&page=pubdocs_top>}. ROSAT: {NHEA09, esp <http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/rosat/rosat.html>}. Spitzer: {S09, esp <http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/about/index.shtml>}, {JPL09, esp <http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/missiondetails.cfm?mission=Spitzer>}. LIGO: {LIGO09, esp <http://www.ligo.org/science/>.}. LISA: {JPL09, esp <http://lisa.jpl.nasa.gov/>}. Other: JWST: {NASA09, esp <http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/about.html>.}. Fermi: {NASA09, esp <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GLAST/spacecraft/index.html> and <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GLAST/science/index.html>.}. SWIFT: {NASA09, esp <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/swift/main/index.html> and <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/swift/spacecraft/index.html>}.

11. {CO2, Section 6.3: Radio Telescopes (pgs 161-167), esp section called "Improving Resolution: Large Apertures and Interferometry" (pgs 163-165).}, {BG1, Chapter 5: The Two-Element Interferometer (pgs 50-68, esp 50-54).}, {PSB2, Lecture 1: Coherence in Radio Astronomy (pgs 1-10, esp 1-7).}.

12. {ITU2009, esp <http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/how_l2/xray_telescopes.html>.}, {CO2, section called "Observing Above the Atmosphere" (pgs 168-170, esp 170).}.

13. {MHB62, first few pages should suffice.}.

14. Stellar Parallax: {CO2, Section 3.1: Stellar Parallax (pgs 57-59).}. Stellar Aberration: {B1, Section 7.5 Aberration (pgs 255-258), esp section called "Stellar aberration" (256-258).}.

15. {CO2, section called "Some Methods for Determining Distances" (pgs 919-922).}.

16. {CO2, sections called "Morgan-Keenan Luminosity Classes" (pgs 225-228), "Spectroscopic Parallax" (pg 475), "Some Methods for Determining Distances" (pgs 919-922, esp 921-922), and "The Wilson-Bappu Effect" (pg 1039).}.











26. {SDV, esp pgs 1-15}, {CO2, Section 23.1: Characteristics of Extrasolar Planetary Systems (pgs 848-857).}.

27. {JJ3, Section 7.7: Magnetohydrodynamic Waves (pgs 319-322).}.

28. {JJ3, Section 7.7: Magnetohydrodynamic Waves (pgs 319-322) and Chapter 7 Problem 7.18 (pg 347).}.


30. {JJ3, Dispersion Relation: Section 7.6: Simplified Model of Propagation in the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere (pgs 316-319); Plasma Frequency: Section 7.11: Arrival of a Signal After Propagation Through a Dispersive Medium (pgs 335-339).}, {B1, Section 11.1-11.3 (pgs 401-419).}.

31. {B1, Sections 11.4: Faraday Rotation and 11.5: Galactic Magnetic Field (pgs 419-434).}, {JJ3, Chapter 7 Problem 7.15 (pg 345-346).}.

32. {JJ3, Section 7.7: Magnetohydrodynamic Waves (pgs 319-322).}. Frozen in: {DGE3, Chapter 7 Problem 7.59 (pg 341).}.

Stellar Physics[edit]

33. {CO2, Section 8.1: The Formation of Spectral Lines (pgs 202-219), and Appendix G: Stellar Data (pg A-9; Table labeled "Main-Sequence Stars (Luminosity Class V)").}.

34. {CO2, section called "The Connection between Color and Temperature" (pgs 68-69) and Section 3.6: The Color Index (pgs 75-79).}.

35. {CO2, section called "Morgan-Keenan Luminosity Classes" (pgs 225-228) and section called "Processes that Broaden Spectral Lines" (pgs 268-271).}.

36. {CO2, section called "An Enormous Range in Stellar Radii" (pgs 220-224).}.

37. {CO2, Section 13.3: Stellar Clusters (pgs 474-479).}.

38. {CO2, sections called "The Saha Equation" and "Combining the Boltzmann and Saha Equations (pgs 213-219).}, {HKT2, Section 3.4: The Saha Equation (pgs 155-159).}. Saha Equation and Recombination (slight tangent): {CO2, section called "The Conditions at Recombination" (pgs 1181-1183).}. Saha Equation and Photo dissociation (slight tangent): {ST1, Section 18.3 Photodissociation (pgs 516-520).}.

39. {CO2, sections called "The Saha Equation" and "Combining the Boltzmann and Saha Equations (pgs 213-219).}

40. {B1, Section 4.2: Equations of stellar structure (pgs 118-124).}, {CO2, sections called "The Derivation of the Hydrostatic Equilibrium Equation" (pgs 285-288), "The Equation of Mass Conservation" (pg 288), "The Luminosity Gradient Equation" (pgs 307-308), "The Radiative Temperature Gradient" (pg 316), and "The Adiabatic Temperature Gradient" (pgs 321-322).}.

41. {Generalize the technique of B1, section called "Mass-radius relation" (pg 143).}.


43. {HKT2, Section 6.3: The Proton-Proton Chains (pgs 299-303, esp Table 6.1).}, {CO2, section called "The Proton-Proton Chains" (pgs 309-311).}, {B1, section called "Proton-proton (pp) chain" (pgs 67-70).}.

44. {HKT2, Sections 9.1: Vital Statistics of the Sun (pgs 432-433) and 9.2: From the ZAMS to the Present (pgs 434-442).}, {CO2, section called "The Present-Day Interior of the Sun" (pgs 350-356).}.

45. {HKT2, Section 9.4: The Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen Cycles (pgs 303-307).}, {CO2, section called "The CNO Cycle" (pgs 311-312).}.









Compact Objects[edit]






59. {CO2, Section 18.4: White Dwarfs in Semidetached Binaries (pages 673-686).}, {HKT2, Section 2.11.1: Novae (pgs 90-94).}.

60. {INCORRECT: CO2, pg. 583, "The Chandrasekhar Limit for Neutron Stars."}


62. {TH1, Part II: Galactic X-Ray Astronomy, Chapter 16: Black Hole Binaries (pgs 237-259).}

63. {C1, Section 5.4: Geodesics of Schwarzschild (pgs 205-212; especially 210-212).}

64. {H1, Section 14.5: Gyroscopes in the Spacetime of a Slowly Rotating Body (pgs 303-307).}

65. {C1, Section 5.5: Experimental Tests (pgs 216-218 only).}

66. {ST1, Section 13.6: Galactic Buldge Sources (pgs 389-394).}, {CO2, pgs 696-697 (section called "X-ray Bursters").} For recurrent novae (aka, "Classical Novae" or "Cataclysmic Variables"), see Part III question #59.

67. {CO2, pgs 662-665 (section called "The Temperature Profile and Luminosity"), esp. example 18.2.1.}

68. {CO2, pgs 593-599 (sections called "The Energy Source for the Crab's Synchrotron Radiation" and "The Basic Pulsar Model").}

69. X-ray pulsars: {RuSt, pgs 270-273.} Radio pulsars: {CO2, pgs 596-599 (section called "The Basic Pulsar Model").}


71. {CO2, pg 692 (derivation of 18.39)}







78. {MLP, pgs 1-6.}.

79. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v329/n6137/abs/329312a0.html




83. {CO2, Section 18.2: Specifically the subsection titled "The Temperature Profile and Luminosity" (pgs 662-665).}.

84. {CO2, Section 28.3: Specifically the subsection titled "Superluminal Velocities" (pgs 1125-1128).}.

85. {CO2, Section 18.6: Specifically the subsection titled "Formation of Binaries with Neutron Stars or Black Holes" (pgs 689-690).}.

Variable Stars[edit]

86. {CO2, Section 14.1: Observations of Pulsating Stars (pgs 483-491), Section 14.2: The Physics of Stellar Pulsation (pgs 491-499), and section called "The Cepheid Distance Scale", pgs (1039-1041).}, {B1, Section 2.8: Pulsations (pgs 78-82).}, {HKT2, Section 2.10: Pulsational Variables (pgs 85-89).}.

87. {CO2, section called "Some Classes of Pulsating Stars" (pgs. 489-491).}, {HKT2, pg 87.}. Calibrating RR Lyrae as distance indicators: {CO2, pg 921.}.

88. {CO2, section called "T Tauri Stars" (pgs 434-436), esp fig 12.17 (pg 436).}.

89. T Tauri stars+HH objects: {CO2, Section 12.3: Pre-Main Sequence Evolution (pgs 425-441), esp 434-437.}. OH Masers: {CO2, pgs 468-469}.











99. {Hm4, Section 9:2 "Stromgren Spheres" (pgs 390-395)}.

Stellar Remnants[edit]

100. {CO2, section called "Planetary Nebula" (pgs 470-474).}, {HKT2, Section 2.6: Later Phases, Initial Masses <= 6-10 Msolar (pgs 69-70).}.

101. {BT3, Section 4.2: The Jeans Equations (pgs 195-211).}. With Hubble flow: {JP8, Section 15.2: Dynamics of Linear Perturbations (pgs 460-469).}. Hand-waving Jeans Length/Mass: {B1, Section 2.2: Jeans length (pgs 50-52).}, {CO2, section called "The Jeans Criterion" (pgs 412-414).}.




Radiative Processes[edit]

105. {B1, Chapter 5: Thermal bremsstrahlung radiation (pgs 181-204).}, {TP1, Section 2.4.1: Thermal bremmstrahlung (pgs 59-62).}, {CO2, section called "General Sources of Opacity" (pgs 244-247, esp 246).}.

106. {B1, Chapter 5: Thermal bremsstrahlung radiation (pgs 181-204), esp pgs 189-195.}.

107. {B1, Chapter 8: Synchrotron radiation (pgs 290-328).}, {TP1, Section 2.4.2: Synchrotron radiation (pgs 63-67).}, {CO2, section called "Synchrotron and Curvature Radiation" (pgs 592-593).}.

108. {B1, Section 8.4: Power radiated by the electron (pgs 304-311) and Section 8.5: Ensemble of radiating particles (pgs 311-317).}, {CO2, section called "The Spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei" (pgs 1087-1090).}.

Galactic Physics[edit]

















125. {MT4, Section 7.13: Virial Theorem (pgs 282-285).}. {CO2, Section 2.4: The Virial Theorem (pgs 50-53).}.

126. {BT3, section called "1 The Relaxation Time" (pgs 187-190).}. Massive object to sink: {BT3, Section 7.1: Dynamical Friction (pgs 420-432), esp section called "1 Applications of Dynamical Friction; (a) Decay of globular cluster orbits" (pgs 427-428).}.

127. {BT3, Section 8.2: The Gravithermal Catastrophe (pgs 500-505).}.

128. {GF1, Section 4.3.4: Gravitational Lensing by Clusters of Galaxies (pgs 93-99).}, {B1, Chapter 12: Gravitational Lensing (pgs 437-482), esp section called "Microlensing" (pgs 457-460).}, {C1, Section 8.6: Gravitational Lensing (pgs 349-355).}, {NB: esp. Chapter 2: Lensing by Point Masses in the Universe (pgs 6-16). }.

129. {CO2, section called "The Local Group" (pgs 1059-1061).}.

130. {CO2, section called "The Classification of Galaxies" (pgs 942-948) plus the beginning of Section 25.2: Spiral and Irregular Galaxies (pg 948-949), esp Table 25.1 (pg 949) and Table 25.2 (pg 949).}, {GF1, Section 3.1: The Revised Hubble Sequence for Galaxies (pgs 41-47).}.

131. {CO2, section called "The Relative Numbers of Galaxies of Various Hubble Types", (pgs 991-993); section called "Mergers in Elliptical and cD Galaxies" (pgs 1013-1015); section called "The Formation of Elliptical Galaxies" (pgs 1028-1030).}.

132. {CO2, section called "Morphological Classes of Elliptical Galaxies" (subsection: "cD galaxies", pg 984); section called "Mergers in Elliptical and cD Galaxies" (pgs 1013-1015). }, {GF1, sporadically throughout Section 4.2.1: The Galaxy Content and Spatial Distribution of Galaxies in Clusters (pgs 75-77).}.





High Energy Astrophysics[edit]

137. {CO2, section called "Generating Luminosity Through Accretion", especially Example 28.2.1 pg 1112.}

138. {CO2, section 28.1, especially subsection titled "The Spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei" pgs. 1087-1090.}

139. Cyg A is discussed. {CO2, section 28.1, subsection titled "Radio Galaxies" pgs. 1090-1092.}

140. JP8, pgs 427-428

141. JP8, pgs 431-433

142. JP8, pgs 426-427

143. {CO2, section called "Are the Sources of GRBs Galactic or Extragalactic?", pgs 544-547.}

144. This question is basically out of date.

145. {W2008}. Max distance (for TeV particles): {TP1, eq 2.64 (pg 69).}.


147. ~1keV: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v353/n6342/abs/353315a0.html








154. {GF1, Section 18.4.3: "The Hubble Deep Field", pgs 437-440.}


156. {GF1, Section 8.7: The Cosmic Time-scale T0 (pgs 214-216).}. From CMB: {CO2, section called "The \Lambda Era" (pgs 1194-1197).}. From White Dwarf Cooling: {ST1, Chapter 4: Cooling of White Dwarfs (pgs 82-105).}.

157. {CO2, sections called "The Cosmological Constant" (pgs 1190-1191) and "The Effects of Dark Energy" (pgs 1191-1194).}, {C1, Section 4.5: The Cosmological Constant (pgs 171-174).}. {INCORRECT: GF1, Section 8.6: The Cosmological Constant - \Lambda and \Omega_{\Lambda} (pgs 210-213).}.

158. R-W metric: {C1, Section 8.2: Robertson-Walker Metrics (pgs 329-333).}, {JP8, Section 3.1: The Robertson Walker metric (pgs 65-72).}, {CO2, section called "The Robertson-Walker Metric for Curved Spacetime" (pgs 1185-1190).}, {GF1, Section 5.4: The Robertson-Walker Metric (pgs 119-122).}. Friedman Equations: {C1, Section 8.3: The Friedmann Equation (pgs 333-337).}, {JP8, Section 3.2: Dynamics of Expansion (pgs 72-86).}, {GF1, Section 7.1: Einstein's Field Equations (pgs 152-155).}, {CO2, Section 29.1: Newtonian Cosmology (pgs 1144-1162).}. Universe Expansion: {C1, Section 8.4: Evolution of the Scale Factor (pgs 338-344).}, {CO2, section called "Expansion in the Two-Component Model" (pgs 1175-1176) and section called "The \Lambda Era" (pgs 1194-1197).}.

159. {CO2, section called "The Evolution of the Pressureless 'Dust' Universe" (pgs 1149-1156).}, {BT3, Appendix 9.A Cosmology, esp pgs 704-705.}, {JP8, section called "Matter-Dominated Universe" (pgs 77-79).}.

160. {JP8, Section 9.5 Primordial Nucleosynthesis (pgs 292-299).}, {CO2, sections called "Big Bang Nucleosynthesis" (pgs 1177-1179) and "The Origin of the Cosmic Microwave Background" (pgs 1179-1181).}, {GF1, Chapter 10: Nucleosynthesis in the Early Universe (pgs 233-249).}.

161. {BT3, Section 10.3: Dark Matter in Cosmology (pgs 617-629), esp sections 1,2,4,6.}, {CO2, section called "The Evolution of the Pressureless 'Dust' Universe" (pgs 1149-1156).}, {JP8, Section 12.3: Evidence for Dark Matter, esp section called "Mass-to-Light Ratios and \Omega" (pg 368).}.

162. {JP8, Section 9.3: The Physics of Recombination (pgs 284-288).}, {CO2, section called "The Conditions at Recombination" (pgs 1181-1183).}.

163. {JP8, Section 9.5: Primordial Nucleosynthesis (pgs 292-295).}, {CO2, sections called "Big Bang Nucleosynthesis" (pgs 1177-1179) and "The Origin of the Cosmic Microwave Background" (pgs 1179-1181).}, {GF1, Chapter 10: Nucleosynthesis in the Early Universe (pgs 233-249).}.

164. {JP8, section called "Massive Neutrinos" (pg 281) and Section 12.5: Nonbaryonic dark matter (pgs 381-386).}. Upper Bounds: {CO2, section called "The Detection of Neutrinos from SN 1987A" (pgs 539-540).}.

165. {CO2, sections called "Transition from Radiation Era to the Matter Era" (pgs 1174-1175) and "The Conditions at Recombination" (pgs 1181-1183).}.

166. {GF1, Section 19.3: The Gunn-Peterson Test (pgs 449-451).}, {CO2, sections called "Determining When the First Stars and Galaxies Formed" (pgs 1255-1256) and "The Lyman-Alpha Forest" (pgs 1137-1139).}.

167. {GF1, Section 8.4.2: Type Ia Supernovae (pgs 201-204).}, {CO2, section called "Type Ia Light Curves" (pgs 1042-1044).}. Is \Omega_{\Lambda} "natural"?: {C1, Section 4.5: The Cosmological Constant (pgs 171-174, esp 173-174).}.